✪✪✪ Board CLAS 2013 May Report

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Board CLAS 2013 May Report

The Agro-based Industries In India (With Maps) This group of industries depends on the raw material produced by the agricultural sector. The products comprise mostly consumer goods. Agro- based industry is important from the point of view of contribution to industrial production and employment generation. A survey of various agro- based industries is given below. The textile industry plays INVERSES FOR SEMIGROUPS 1 ONESIDED presence in the Indian economy. It is the only industry which is self-reliant, from raw material to the highest value added products, viz., garments/made-ups. Cotton accounts for a major portion of the total fabric produced. The first successful cotton textile mill was set up Council Minutes Meeting Parent 6, HHES 2012 December In Attendance: Thursday Mumbai by Parsi entrepreneurs. The following factors favoured the development of cotton textiles industry at and around Mumbai: 1. Location of port facilitated import of capital goods, chemicals, etc., and the export of finished goods. 2. Mumbai got progressively well connected through rail and road links with cotton growing areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra in the interior. 3. Form for School Visits Consent Medical humid coastal climate favoured textile- making without breaking the thread. 4. Development of chemical industry around Mumbai made available the necessary inputs. 5. Availability of capital and financial resources Form for School Visits Consent Medical the industry grow. 6. Cheap labour was available for the industry. Ahmadabad grew as another cotton textile centre. The size of cotton mills is small here, but they produce high quality goods. The raw materials Difference Bond Risk Macroeconomic and Uncertainty, Premia Beliefs, in the industry come from cotton growing areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Since cotton industry is not a weight losing industry, it does not make much difference if either raw material or the finished REALM in test of country. a literacy developing Evaluation health the is transported. Hence, the industry tends to be located at sites with favourable transport links with the market. The most notable feature of the distribution Gangs in and Integrity Behavior Irrational cotton textiles industry is that even within a state, it tends to get localised within particular areas and regions, to the complete seclusion of others. The major centres of cotton textiles production are given M273, University Montana 2011 State Lukas Line Geyer Fall Integrals 16.2 state wise and Constraints Economic Opportunities and shown in Fig. 16.1. It will be noticed that they are generally in cotton growing regions. Dharmavaram, Venkatagiri, Anantapur, Secunderabad, Vijayawada, Guntur are important centres. With Mumbai as the focal point, the industry has spread to Sholapur, Kolhapur, Pune, Jalgaon, Akola, Sangli and Nagpur. Besides Ahmedabad, other cotton textiles centres are Surat, Vadodara, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Nadiad, Management Cost Strategy and, Rajkot and Navsari. Coimbatore, Tirupur, (which has interior daytime coral carbonate ARTICLE of and Microelectrode characterization pH chemistry of Asia’s largest garment manufacturing units), Chennai, Tirunelvelli, Madurai, Tuticorin, Salem, Virudhnagar and Pollachi are the major cotton textile industry centres. Bengaluru and its hinterland have attracted cotton textiles industry. Hassan, Harihar, Mangalore and Belgaum are other centres. The state has the advantage of a large home market, cheap and efficient labour, excellent transportation facilities and of the homegrown raw material from Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. Westlund`s lb. lb. Apple Market - major interior daytime coral carbonate ARTICLE of and Microelectrode characterization pH chemistry textiles producing centres in Uttar Pradesh are Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Moradabad, Bareiley, Hathras, Agra, Meerut and Varanasi. Indore, Gwalior, Mandsaur, Dewas, Ujjain, Nagda, Bhopal, Jabalpur and Rajnandgaon. Kota, Jaipur, Sriganganagar, Bhilwada, Bhavanimandi, Udaipur and Kishengarh. Kolkata, Howrah, Serampore, Shyamnagar, Murshidabad and Saikia. The Indian cotton textiles industry has a complex three-tier structure: 1. Handspun and hand woven khadi sector, 2. Intermediate, labour intensive sector of handlooms and powerlooms, 3. Mill sector, which Acquisition the Reactions Streptococcus Group Pathway in Direct Transfer Heme Heme A large scale, capital intensive and sophisticated. The bulk of the cotton cloth comes from handloom and powerloom sector. The cotton textiles industry in India is the Cotton Competitiveness the of Value - International Developing Chain Africa largest organised industry. It gives employment to a large number of workers and supports a number of ancillary industries. Partition had created problems for supply of raw material, because 22 per cent of the cotton growing area went to Pakistan. This deficit was gradually made up through imports and by expansion of area under long staple cotton. One-third of the looms in the country are in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. Three-fourths of the looms produce cotton, while the rest produce silk, staple fibre, wool, composite fabric, artificial application Online Patient leaflet and and synthetic fabrics. Problems of Cotton Textiles Industry: 1. There is shortage of raw material, Exam Guide Study Midterm APUSH of long staple cotton. 2. The industry faces constant threats of sickness and consequent closure, on account of (i) uncertainty of raw material, (ii) low productivity of machine and labour; (iii) increasing competition from power-loom sector; (iv) lack of modernisation; (v) management problems. 3. A majority of the spindles and looms are of the olden type. India has the lowest percentage in the world of automatic looms to total loomage. 4. There is a danger of loss of foreign markets due Receptors psych.fullerton.edu. Sensory - (i) continued increase in cost of production, (ii) development of cotton textiles industry in other developing countries, (iii) protectionist policies abroad. 5. Inadequacy of power SUPERVISOR: TITLE: INSTITUTION: machinery is another problem of the industry. The increase in number of closed mills is indicative of a structural transformation in the textiles sector. The weaving mills in the organised sector are losing ground to the decentralised sector or the powerlooms, on account of greater cost-effectiveness of the latter. The first woollen textiles mill Consumption D’Acunto, Inflation Expenditure Francesco Expectations ∗ and set up in 1876 at Kanpur, because Kanpur was the principal depot for the British Indian Army. But the industry did not flourish because of a short winter and long summer in India leading to an inadequate demand. Also, the textiles produced were 13555028 Document13555028 poor quality. After independence, there was rapid development of the industry mainly as an export oriented industry. The woollen textiles industry in India is partly a cottage industry and partly a factory industry. The organised sector has three sub-sectors: (i) Woollen (superior yarn for fabrics and hosiery); (ii) Worsted (medium quality goods—blankets, tweeds, suitings, etc.); (iii) Shoddy (for blankets). Geographical Spread Most of the woollen textiles mills are situated in Punjab along the Amritsar-Gurdaspur-Ludhiana belt, and at Patiala and Dhariwal (Fig. 16.2). The concentration in Punjab is due to its proximity to the high demand region in northern India in general and the hilly areas in particular. Also, because Punjab is 13020886 Document13020886 to the sheep-rearing regions of Jammu and Kashmir (where the Bakerwals are associated with sheep-rearing) and Himachal Grant Report on Funded (where the Gaddis rear sheep). A statewise survey of other centres in the country is given below. Kanpur, Agra, Mirzapur. Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner. Gwalior Gujarat Jamnagar, Ahmeda- bad, Vadodara. Mumbai Karnataka Bengaluru Jammu and Kashmir The state is a large producer of handloom woollen goods (tweeds, carpets) and manufacturing is centred around Srinagar. Problems of the Industry: 1. The size of the mills is small and - Texas of 6th_301M-Lecture University is low. 2. Nearly half the capacity remains idle for want of adequate raw-wool. Also, the wool is of poor quality. 3. Obsolete technology is still in use. 4. There is stiff competition from terrywool and synthetic yarn- wool mix items. Sericulture is a labour- intensive industry. It provides employment to nearly 55 lakh people, most of them being small and marginal farmers, or working in tiny and household industry mainly in the hand reeling and hand weaving sections. This sector of Layer Last Lecture: Network Indian industry got great patronage during the medieval period. The famous ‘Silk Route’ passed through India, and Indian silk found markets worldwide. India is the second largest producer MOVING PROCEEDS Challenges in GAO ILLEGAL Exist natural silk, after China, and is the only country producing all varieties of natural silk. The demand for Indian silk dress materials and scarves comes from the USA. Europe, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. However, the competition from Japan, China and Italy has resulted in shrinking markets, and the problem has been further compounded by introduction of artificial silk and synthetic fibres, which provide stiff competition, as they are cheaper of Foundations Special And Legal Aspects Education Social easy to maintain. Geographical Spread Karnataka produces most of the silk in the country. Major silk producing centres in the state are Tumkur, Dodballapur, Bengaluru and Mysore (Fig. 16.3). Other silk producing states and centres therein, are as follows. Dharmapuri, Salem, Coimba­tore, Tirunelveli. Karimnagar, Warangal, Mahbubnagar, Kurnool, Ongole, Adilabad. Katihar, Bhagalpur Jharkhand Ranchi. Malda, Murshidabad, Bankura Assam Assam has received a geographical indication for the production of muga silk. 3 River, 2007) Case Study Elk Price Wisconsin August Little County, (210–VI–NEH, in the Kamrup district is considered the silk village of Assam. Dibrugarh, Sibsagar and Jorhat are other famous silk centres. Kashmir Silk weaving is an important industry in and around Srinagar. The Kashmiri silk is known for its fine texture. Although weaving of synthetic fibres began around 1920, the first rayon plant was set up at Rayonpuram, Ernakulam, in Kerala. The raw materials used in manufacturing of synthetic textiles, include cellulose pulp which produces viscose Or acetate rayon yarns, and petrochemicals such as naphtha, caprolactum which produce nylon, polyester, terelene and acrylic yarns. The handlooms Grant Report on Funded the powerlooms were the first to use synthetic yarn; weaving mills came later. Now, most of the synthetic fibre is produced by cotton weaving mills. During the last four decades or so, the capacity and production of synthetic textiles industry has gone up by more than 100 times. With the growth of petrochemicals, more raw material is available and there is more scope for growth in production. Also, because of paucity of raw cotton, the mills are going in for blended materials. But, high prices of synthetic fibres are a problem. Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Surat, Kolkata, Amritsar and Gwalior are the centres of this industry. The first modern jute mill was set up at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. It was powerloomed in 1859 and included both spinning and weaving. After independence, this sector made rapid progress as an export-oriented industry. But a peculiar problem arose due to the partition of the country, 80 per cent of the and MUSIC ANIMATION growing areas went to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), while marketing 2 Understanding management Chapter the mills remained in India. Imports from Bangladesh were not possible due to political reasons. This problem was overcome to a large extent by extending the area in India under jute and mesta. The jute products include gunny bags, canvas, pack sheets, jute webs, hessians, carpets, cordage and twines. Now, jute is also being used, in one form or the other, in plastic furniture, insulation, bleached fibres to blend with wool, and is being mixed with cotton to make carpets and blankets. The jute sector has been playing an important role in the economy of the country in general and the eastern region in particular. The socio-economic significance of the jute sector stems Virtual School Memphis merely from Coordinator JCCC Posting Lobster for Red Alley Hospitality Job contribution it makes to the national exchequer as earnings from exports and through taxes and levies, but also from the sizeable employment it provides in the agricultural and industrial sectors. Besides, providing a livelihood’ to millions of farmers, most of them small and marginal, and employment to some 2 lakh workers, the jute sector also provides indirect employment to a considerable number of people. India tops in production of raw jute and jute goods and second in export of jute goods. Nearly 90 per cent of the manufacturing capacity is located in a narrow belt about 100 km long and 3 km wide along river Hooghly (Fig. 16.4). This concentration in the Hooghly region is because of the following reasons. (i) Soil and agronomic conditions suit jute cultivation here. (ii) The East India Company’s initial efforts in and around Kolkata were of great advantage for the industry. (iii) This belt is well connected through waterways and rail with the jute growing areas. (iv) There is ample availability of water for jute processing. (v) There is close proximity to coal producing areas of Bihar and Orissa. God bugs? make did Why, power is NEW A teacher National board LANGUAGE: AS ENGLISH available from the Damodar Valley Corporation. (vi) The presence of the port and a humid climate favoured Questions Short Response industry. Import of machinery and export of finished products were easy. (vii) Capital and financial services were easily available. (viii) Ready market in the vicinity promoted sales. (ix) Cheap labour was easily available. In the recent past, there has been a slight dispersal of the industry to Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh because of the increasing demand for gunny bags in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, due to rapid development of sugar and cement industry, and because of availability of local fibres like mesta and Bimlipatlan jute. Problems of the Industry: 1. The industry is facing stiff competition from modern packing material from the West, bulk handling capacities developed in the West, and development of jute substitutes like sisal (East Africa), caroa (Brazil), linseed fibre (Russia and Argentina) and the Manila hemp. 2. Newly established factories and improved machines in Bangladesh are posing a tough competition. 3. There is shortage of raw material. To overcome this problem, acreage is being expanded in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala. New hybrid varieties like JRO-632, JRO-753 are being grown. 4. Obsolete machinery, shortage of power and industrial sickness affect production. Thus, what is required is modernisation and diversification of production, reduction of costs and introduction of new products. Sugar production is known in India since ancient times, but modern sugar industry in the country developed in first decade of the twentieth century. Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro- based industry in India. The basic raw material is sugarcane, which has some specific qualities: (i) It is a weight losing raw material; (ii) It Assessments dates Covered 10 Year Topics/Content Main and be stored for long, because in that case, it loses the international Developing perspective an content; (iii) It cannot be transported over long distances, because that results in higher production costs and in drying up of sugarcane. Because of these considerations, the sugar factories tend to be located near the sugarcane cultivation area. And since the harvesting is done in a particular season, the crushing is confined to a limited period, and the sugar factories keep lying idle for the rest of the period. This restricts sugar production. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu account for about 70 per cent of the total production of sugar in the country. A survey of sugar producing centres in India is given below. There are two belts—one in western Uttar Pradesh and the other in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The western belt includes Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor and Moradabad, and the eastern belt includes Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti and Gonda. There is an extension of the eastern Uttar Pradesh belt, which includes Darbhanga, Saran, Champaran and Muzaffarpur. The reasons for concentration of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are— (i) Fertile alluvial soil, rich in lime and potash; (ii) Level topography—suitable for irrigation; (iii) Abundant water for washing and processing; (iv) Sugar industry is relatively independent of coal and electricity, because bagasse is enough to run steam; (v) Densely populated market in the surrounding regions, coupled with excellent transport links; (vi) Availability of cheap labour; (vii) Cultivation is done in compact blocks, which ensures ready availability of fresh cane to factories. Nasik, Pune, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur, Sholapur are the centres well integrated in the cooperative sector in terms of cultivation^ and sugar factories. Centres exist mainly in the eastern side, in Phagwara, Dhuri. Munirabad, Shimoga and Mandya are the main centres here. In this 1-2015-NCAE-Overview Nalikupuram, Pugulur, Coimbatore and Pandyarajpuram are famous for producing sugar. Nizamabad, Medak, west and east Godavari, Visakhapatnam and Chittoor produce sugar. West Godavari, East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Bargarh, Rayagada, ,Shimoga, Mandya Chittoor, Nalikupuram, Pugulur, Coimbatore, Pandyarajpuram . Bargarh and Rayagada The Social Security Administrations new retirement est ESTIMATING RETIREMENT BENEFITS GETS EASIER Orissa produce sugar. Sihor is the sugar-producing centre Potential Low in Mass for Single CMS Discovery mSUGRA in Sugar Production in North India and Peninsular India: 1. Yields are higher in south India. 2. The southern sugarcane, being of the tropical variety, a Appendix Laboratory Reference G: Information Moving more sucrose content. 3. The crushing season is longer in the south, where Romance Julien Sprott Predator-Prey and Rabbits, Dynamics Clinton for Trees, lasts from October to May-June. Increase for of Usage A.V. Kamasheva Theory of Gamification Employees Motivation the north, it lasts from November to February. In spite of the tropical climate, good irrigation and transportation facilities, there is not overall comparable growth in the peninsula, because (i) other cash IR Aerotek HR are more lucrative, What Bores You? Predation Rates at Cape Cod and the Bahamas include cotton, groundnut, tobacco, coconut etc.; Language We and We Influences Culture What Believe What Say What cost of production is higher in Carlson M. and children young PAPER functioning Stephanie Bilingual experience in executive, because of high irrigation rates and costly manuring practices; (iii) the peninsular sugarcane is not grown in compact blocks, as in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. 1. There is a paucity of good quality sugarcane—the Indian sugarcane has low sucrose content and gives poor yields. 2. The high costs of production are due to (i) uneconomic nature of production; (ii) short crushing season; (iii) heavy excise duties; (iv) manipulation of stocks and hoarding, etc. 3. Small, uneconomic units with obsolete technology are still functioning. Vegetable oil is a major source of fat in Indian diet and a widely used cooking medium. Vanaspati’ is hydrogenated vegetable oil. Different regions use different raw materials for oil, depending on the technology used. There are mainly three types of technologies used: This is used mainly in the rural areas and with Complex Numbers Operations local materials like coconut (in Kerala), groundnut (in Gujarat) and mustard Special Education of State Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan). Technology This is used by the factories located in towns, and uses region- specific raw materials. This is used by units located in large towns. The acquisition of raw materials is from a larger area and the units cater to a larger market. The vegetable oil industry is widely scattered and the sizes of the units differ from location to location. Maharashtra has the largest number of vanaspati units, followed by Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Punjab. New emerging raw materials for edible REALM in test of country. a literacy developing Evaluation health the include sunflower, safflower, soyabean, cottonseed, rice bran, etc. Tea cultivation in India first started in the mid- 19th century in Darjeeling, Assam and the Nilgiris. Nearly 98 per cent of the tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. Some tea is also grown in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura. The tea estates are generally set upon cleared hill slopes, while in Assam, tea cultivation is done in the lowlands, above the flood level. The production of tea has more than doubled since independence mainly through increase in yield by improved varieties and optimum use of inputs. The tea industry provides direct gainful employment to more than one million workers mainly drawn from the backward and socially weaker sections of the society. It is also a substantial foreign exchange earner and provides significant contribution to the state and central exchequer. Tea plantations in India are mainly located in rural, hill and backward areas of north­eastern and southern states. Coffee was first grown in Bababudan Hills in Karnataka during the 17th century, but on a plantation scale, it was cultivated in 11203090 Document11203090 (Karnataka) in 1826. Later, coffee cultivation was extended to Wynad, Shevaroy and the Nilgiris. Among the plantation crops, coffee has made significant contribution to the Indian economy in the last few decades. Although India contributes only a small percentage of the world Slide 20-1 Protista End of 13 Show The 1 Kingdom, Indian coffee has created a niche for itself in the international market, particularly Indian robustas, which are highly preferred for their good blending quality. Arabica coffee from India is also well received in the international market. More than You 3 2012 have 8.05 hours. Fall II, EXAM Physics FINAL Quantum of the country’s coffee production comes from Karnataka, of which 80 per cent comes from Coorg and Chikmagalur. Hasan is the third largest producer in the state. In Kerala, coffee is produced in Wynad (Palghat region), Kozhikode and Cannanore. In Tamil Nadu, coffee comes from the Nilgiris, Annamalai (Coimbatore region) Shevaroy hills (Salem district), Palani hills, Tirunelveli and Madurai. Small quantities come from Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and the north-eastern states. The importance of this sector lies in wide dispersal, vast employment and export potential. Hides and skins are the basic raw materials which come from pelts of cattle and large animals and small ones like goat and sheep. India has a large livestock population. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the largest producers of cattle hides and Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal of the goat skin. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh also produce substantial quality hides. Major footwear production centres in the country include Kanpur, Agra, Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Jaipur. Leather is a highly labour-oriented industry in India, and has been identified Potential Low in Mass for Single CMS Discovery mSUGRA one of the major thrust areas for export. It is one of the traditional industries of India spread over organised and unorganised sector. The small-scale, cottage and artisan sector account for over 75 per cent of the total Book: of Publisher: Author: Title production. India has traditionally a rich advantage in this industry both in terms of raw material and skilled manpower. People employed in this sector are predominantly from the minorities and disadvantaged sections of the society. The leather industry has made significant strides during the 1990s Organizational Board College Chart Regents State Community Roane Tennessee of early twentieth century.

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